Identify what is defined through its function.
It serves as a relay station for information coming from our senses to the brain.
This regulates heartbeat and respiration and plays a role in sneezing, coughing, vomiting, swallowing and digestion.
This is necessary for balance, muscle tone and performance of motor skills.
This coordinates information between the left and right hemispheres of the brain.
Answer: corpus callosum
This regulates some of our basic emotional reaction.
Answer: Limbic System
This is responsible for the transfer of information from short to long term memory.
This governs high-level processes in the brain such as cognition and language.
Answer: cerebral cortex
It maintains homeostasis in the body or a state of internal equilibrium across a variety of bodily systems.
This refers to respiration, consciousness, sleep, dreaming, facial movements, sensory processes and transmission of neural signal from one part of the brain to another.
This governs the emotion of fear and aggression.
The ____________ is the smallest magnitude of a stimulus that can be detected half of the time.
d. Absolute Threshold
When a stimulus is continuously present or repeated at short intervals, the sensation gradually becomes weaker. This termed__________.
b. Sensory adaptation
According to_____________, the amount of the change in a stimulus needed to be detected half the time is in direct proportion to the intensity of the original stimulus.
a. Weber’s law
Light waves are transduced into neural messages by two types of receptor cells, named rods and cones, in the ____________of the eye.
Cones are concentrated in the ___________.
The ____________theory of color vision proposes that there are three kinds of cones in the retina that respond primarily to light in either the red, green, or blue range of wavelengths.
The sound wave is amplified by the hammer, anvil, and stirrup in the _____________.
d. Middle ear
The sound wave is transduced into neural impulses in the ________, which is located in the cochlea in the inner ear.
d. Organ of Corti
Sensory receptors located in the muscles, joints, and skin provide the brain with messages about movement, posture, and orientation of the body. These are called______________receptors.
According to _____________, pitch perception occurs when the brain notices which portions of the basilar membrane are being most excited by incoming sound waves.
a. Place Theory
Objects cast smaller images on the retina when they are more distant. As a result, parallel lines, such as railroad tracks, appear to grow closer together the farther they are from us.
We tend to perceive lines or patterns that follow a smooth contour as being part of a single unit.
It is a preexisting mental concept or framework that helps people organize and interpret information.
Visual stimuli in which the cues used in visual perception create a false perception.
A part of the inner ear that is characterized as a coiled, fluid-filled tube about 1.4 inches long that resembles a snail. This is where the sound waves are turned into neutral impulses.
A form of mental training that can be used to calm the mind, stabilize concentration, or enhance awareness of the present moment.
_____________ in depth perception require both eyes to allow us to perceive depth.
Missing sensory information is automatically "filled in" in the process of perception to create complete and whole perceptions.
A term in classical conditioning wherein a response is elicited by the conditioned stimulus.The shape of the lens of the eye must change to focus the visual image on the retina from stimuli that are different distances from the eye.
drugs act on the nervous system to alter consciousness, modify perceptions and alter mood.
When we perceive a visual stimulus, part of what we see is the center of our attention and the rest isthe indistinct ground.
A type of reinforcement that is learned by association, usually via classical conditioning like money, grades, and peer approval.Things that are close together are usually perceived as belonging together.
It is the tendency for perceptions of objects to remain relatively unchanged in spite of changes in rawsensations.
This refers to the savory taste of meat stock, cheese, and mushrooms, that some scientists believe is another type of taste bud.
The ______________ schedule is where reinforcement always follows the first response after a set amount of time, producing a response pattern in which the rate of response immediately following reinforcement is low.
Closer objects tend to be partially in front of, or partially cover up, more distant objects.
A theory of dreaming that rests on the idea that dreams are essentially subconscious cognitive processing.
Theory of DreamingThis is a state of mind characterized by focused attention, suggestibility, absorption, lack of voluntarycontrol over behavior, and suspension of critical faculties of mind.
____________ is a heightened awareness of the present moment, which can be applied to events in one’s environment and events in one’s own mind.
According to Freud, this refers to the dream’s hidden content; it unconscious and true meaning.
c. Latent Content
Which of the following does mediation appear to improve?
d. All of the above (Answer)
_____________ includes automatic processing that requires little attention?
a. Lower-Level Consciousness
_____________ occurs when someone is either physically or psychologically reliant on a drug’s effect.
b. Substance dependence
____________ produces mild hallucinations as well as physiological arousal and sometimes called the “love drug” because it produces feelings of euphoria, warmth, and connectedness with others.
The circadian rhythm of sleep is a natural rhythm of sleep and waking programmed by a group of brain cells in the hypothalamus called_________________.
b. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
A sleep disorder in which a person stops breathing while asleep.
b. Sleep Apnea
A sleep disorder in which a person falls asleep during alert times of the day.
According to Freud, the surface content of a dream, containing dream symbols that disguise the dream’s true meaning
d. Manifest Content
Russian physiologist who received the Nobel Prize for his work on the role of saliva in digestion.
It refers to any stimulus that decreases the frequency of behavior.
A form of learning in which the consequences of behavior lead to changes in the probability of its occurrence.
An American psychologist who formulated the “law of effect”.
It refers to any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about through experience.
These reinforces are innate and often satisfy biological needs like food, water, sex, and even artificial sweeteners with no food value
These reinforcers are learned by association, usually via classical conditioning like money, grades, and peer approval.
This reinforcement occurs when the presentation or addition of stimulus to a situation increases the likelihood of a behavior like giving extra credit points for turning in homework on time.
This reinforcement involves the removal of the stimulus to increase behavior.
It refers to the process of observing and imitating behaviors performed by others.
Type of attention in which involves concentrating on more than one activity at the same time.
a. Divided Attention
A type of effortful retrieval that occurs when we are confident that we know something but cannot quite pull it out of memory.
d. Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
It refers to the retention of information about the where, when, and what of life’s happenings – that is how individuals remember life’s episodes.
c. Episodic memory
It is a conscious recollection of information, such as specific facts and events and at least in humans, information that can be verbally communicated.
c. Explicit memory
A preexisting mental concept or framework that helps people to organize and interpret information.
This is a special form of episodic memory, consisting of a person’s recollections of his or her life experiences.
c. Autobiographical Memory
This pertains to the memory of emotionally significant events that people often recall with more accuracy and vivid imagery than everyday events.
b. Flashbulb Memory
A condition when individual forgets something because it is so painful or anxiety laden that remembering is intolerable.
d. Motivated Forgetting
It refers to a memory loss for a segment of the past but not for new events.
b. Retrograde Amnesia
This occurs when material that was learned earlier disrupts the recall of material learned later. taught earlier.
c. Proactive Interference
These are substances that create distorted perceptions of reality ranging from mild to extreme.
A psychoactive drug that stimulates the brain by blocking neurotransmitters that slow down our nervous system and cause sleep.
___________ memory is the conscious recollection of information such as specific facts and events and at least in humans, information that can be verbally communicated.
The activation of information that people already have in storage to help them remember new information better and faster.
___________ is defined as the minimum intensity of a stimulus that can be detected 50% of the time.
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