When we perceive a visual stimulus, part of what we see is the center of our attention and the rest is the indistinct ground.
Objects cast smaller images on the retina when they are more distant. As a result, parallel lines, such as railroad tracks, appear to grow closer together the farther they are from us.
h. Linear Perspective
It is the tendency for perceptions of objects to remain relatively unchanged in spite of changes in raw sensations.
h. Perceptual constancy
A form of mental training that can be used to calm the mind, stabilize concentration, or enhance awareness of the present moment.
A type of reinforcement that is learned by association, usually via classical conditioning like money, grades, and peer approval.
a. Secondary reinforcers
Things that are close together are usually perceived as belonging together.
It is a preexisting mental concept or framework that helps people organize and interpret information.
This is a state of mind characterized by focused attention, suggestibility, absorption, lack of voluntary control over behavior, and suspension of critical faculties of mind.
A term in classical conditioning wherein a response is elicited by the conditioned stimulus.
a. Conditioned response
The shape of the lens of the eye must change to focus the visual image on the retina from stimuli that are different distances from the eye.
drugs act on the nervous system to alter consciousness, modify perceptions and alter mood.
The ______________ schedule is where reinforcement always follows the first response after a set amount of time, producing a response pattern in which the rate of response immediately following reinforcement is low.
a. Fixed interval
A part of the inner ear that is characterized as a coiled, fluid-filled tube about 1.4 inches long that resembles a snail. This is where the sound waves are turned into neutral impulses.
Missing sensory information is automatically "filled in" in the process of perception to create complete and whole perceptions.
A theory of dreaming that rests on the idea that dreams are essentially subconscious cognitive processing.
a. Cognitive Theory of Dreaming
Visual stimuli in which the cues used in visual perception create a false perception.
a. Visual Illusions
We tend to perceive lines or patterns that follow a smooth contour as being part of a single unit.
Closer objects tend to be partially in front of, or partially cover up, more distant objects.
_____________ in depth perception require both eyes to allow us to perceive depth.
g. Binocular Cues
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